Thursday, March 12, 2009

How to be a fenqing

忿青 fen qing * - "angry youth" - is the term given to Chinese Netizens of a self-righteous and aggressively nationalist tendency. They are mostly young males with nothing better to do with their time than hang out online. They infest the blogs and bulletin boards of the Chinese Internet. And some of the ones with slightly better foreign language skills stalk the foreign China blogs, looking to pick a fight whenever somebody dares to make an observation that appears to be "critical" of China, or challenges the 'orthodox view' on hot topics such as - well, you know, "The Three T's". If you visit The Peking Duck, one of the most popular laowai China blogs, you will often find its comment threads overrun with these dingbats.

I often refer to the fenqing phenomenon as the Chinese Communist Party's 'blowback' from the years of propagandizing it subjects its children to during their schooling. The government occasionally seeks to exploit their hot-headed and xenophobic impulses by whipping up their indignation against a particular country to make a diplomatic point (in an exceedingly undiplomatic way!): the French have been on the receiving end of this a lot over the past year. However, this kind of sentiment is hard to direct and control, and it is more often an embarrassment or an inconvenience to the government than a help; indeed, it could potentially become a threat to the government. The Telegraph recently had a story about the government here suppressing online discussion of a supposedly rather unstatesmanlike outburst by Chinese Vice-President Xi Jinping during his visit to Mexico. I can't see that the remark as reported here is actually all that extreme, but apparently it does come across as quite blunt and even a little testy in Chinese. The problem was that the fenqing went nutso over it, celebrating such uncharacteristic straight-talking in international discourse and hoping that it heralded a new direction in foreign policy, an era of telling other nations to just shut the f*** up. And so the story was pulled from the domestic media, and online comments about it were deleted.

However, there may be some hope. This article by thinkweird - a rare Chinese blogger writing in English - claims that he himself was once a fenqing, but has "moved on"; and he suggests that the eventual conversion of fenqing is almost inevitable, as they are progressively exposed to more diverse sources of information (largely over the Internet) and gain a fuller picture of the world.

Last week, while searching for some film of the Tibetan 'Shoe Jintao' game on YouTube, I came upon this slideshow presenting a typical fenqing view of the Tibet issue. It is extremely unpleasant and disturbing - but also unintentionally hilarious. [Unfortunately, YouTube clips and searches involving 'Tibet' are being heavily filtered this week - I wonder why? - so I am not able to embed this at the moment. Please follow the link. Oh, the irony - Chinese censorship inadvertently blocks pro-CCP propaganda!]

In that dumb, nasty presentation you find all the classic characteristics of fenqing. The frequent resort to SHOUTY capitals and exclamation marks. The even more frequent resort to foul-mouthed invective. A staggering naivety and an atrophy of the capacity for analytical thought (this guy seems to believe that he can 'prove' the political status of Tibet at different points in history by showing us Chinese high school wallmaps!). Dodgy spelling, faulty logic, and even an ineptitude in arithmetic (he begins by asserting that China's 'ownership' of Tibet has a history going back "thousands of years", but then bases this claim on Tibet's having been part of Kublai Khan's empire just over 700 years ago; he still brags that this is longer than the combined histories of America, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand - er, no, if you put those four together, I think you do get rather more than 1,000 years; and so it goes on.....).

As I said, it is pretty unpleasant and objectionable stuff, but horribly fascinating - and very entertaining. Approach with caution. Or avoid, if you're easily offended. But I think it's useful to know your enemy.

* I hope I got the right characters here. I don't entirely trust the MandarinTools online dictionary search. Weeble??

Update 1: I was indeed mistaken about the first character up there. Please see the comments below from my friend The Weeble. I didn't want to change it because I think this is an interesting side discussion in itself. The character I mistakenly selected, 忿, apparently means something like 'vehement' - which seems to me almost more appropriate than 'angry'.

Update 2: Jeremiah, being of an academic bent, felt inspired by my frippery here to write a much fuller and more considered piece on the fenqing phenomenon. Please go and take a look, if you haven't already.

Update 3: Please also take at look at my (equally frivolous, but - I hope - commendably even-handed) follow-up on How to be a fenwai.

Update 4: Now, how did that happen? This post has just been linked to by the celebrated political pundit and pioneer journo-blogger Andrew Sullivan on his blog over at The Atlantic. Since this guy sometimes gets one million visitors a week, I am waiting with some trepidation to see what his recommendation may do to my traffic.
[Disclosure: Andrew and I are lao tongxue - "old classmates" - in that we were contemporaries at Oxford. I was briefly on nodding terms with him back then, but he wouldn't remember now. And even if he had been aware of this tenuous bond of fraternity, I'm sure he wouldn't have let it influence his judgement.]


Anonymous said...

It's 愤青 ("angry youth"), commonly written as the homophonous 粪青 ("shitty youth") by those who have no truck with them.

Froog said...

Why, thank you, Weebs. I knew I could rely on you.

Froog said...

However, Mandarin Tools suggests the character I chose as an adjective, where it only lists 愤 (and 粪) as a noun.

I know, I know - Chinese isn't big on distinguishing the parts of speech.

Anonymous said...

In that case, Mandarin Tools is wrong -- 愤 occurs as an adjective in, e.g., 愤怒, 愤愤, etc.

Anonymous said...

I wish I can be so cool about these Fenqings, but I can't. Their total lack of basic humanity or logic is so depressing ...

Anonymous said...

As an internet scholar, I have devoted a considerable amount of time on analyzing these specimens that you speak of. I refer to them as Internet Chinese Nationalists which they are more commonly known as here in the west.

I have written a few articles publicizing my findings which I would like to share with you and your readers.

First off: The Newbies Guide To Pro-China Internet Trolls

This is a more general guide on what an internet Chinese nationalist is and the characteristics of such a specimen should you encounter one.

And my latest article: The Chinese Imbalance of Views Syndrome

In this article I attempt to explain why internet Chinese nationalists are the way they are. I attempt to step into the shoes of an internet Chinese nationalist and look through their point of view and their associated stimuli.

My findings I dub as the Chinese Imbalance of Views Syndrome. It is a bit lengthy to explain so just go to the URL above.

Anonymous said...

Sorry, the second URL should be this:

I hope your readings are fruitful.

Froog said...

Wow, this post drew out some 'new faces'!

I find the 'Magician' rather disturbing. Some of his observations are quite amusing and insightful. Others appear to be disgustingly racist. If he's just trying to establish a joke persona for himself as a right-wing nutjob, it's not clear where exactly the joke lies. I find his free and easy use of the n-word to be extremely distasteful, and I wouldn't recommend his site to anyone else.

Yu'er's site appears to be blocked currently, so I've no idea what he's about.

Anonymous said...

"the combined histories of America, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand - er, no, if you put those four together, I think you do get rather more than 1,000 years; and so it goes on.....)."

Uh, yeah, Australia has at least 40,000 years of history of human settlement, so he's kinda shot himself in both feet with that one.

As for Yu'er, his address seems to say all you need to know about why his site may be blocked.

Froog said...

Yes, well, he was talking about the modern history of those nations - since their foundation as European colonies. Even on that, his maths is well off.

If you look at geological history, I guess we're all about the same.... Though maybe some fenqing would argue that their strata are more ancient than anyone else's (and, obviously, include Tibet, Taiwan, etc.).

Isn't Yu'er's site called "Remember 64"? I'm missing that reference at the moment, can't think why '64 might have any greater significance than other years in the '60s.

Then again, it wouldn't surprise me if any URL including the word 'remember' is going to be blocked in China this year. You can't be too careful.

Anonymous said...


Think month-day rather than year and see if that rings a bell.

Froog said...


Thanks, J.

Still not entirely in tune with this American/Chinese attitude to rendering dates. And I don't think I've ever seen 6/4 rendered before without a - or a . or / or something in between it.

Also, I've had about 30 hours of sleep in the whole of this week, and my brain is not functioning at its height.

Anonymous said...

"self-righteous","faulty logic" and
"lack of humanity"..., these words that you people use to discredit fenqings, fit nicely to, ironically, you. Yes, you.

This is proved by what you people and your media did(and are still doing) after the riots in Tibet last year: the rioters killed 1 soldier and 18 civilians(17 Han's and Hui's, 1 Tibetan), including a
8-month-old baby, and 5 young girls.

Have you people and your main-steam media ever condamned the barbaric and racially motivated killings? No. Instead, you do not even bother to go through the formality (of condamning violence from the rioters); you point your fingers directly to the goverment and Chinese people and repeat what Dalai Lama tell you.

What is your logic/common sense in doing so?

In your culture, especially in a small town where you yourself grew up, what would happen if a child is lost? Do the folks get mobilized to help the parents find the child? But then, when a Chinese child was burned to death with his parents,what was your reaction? Did you ever show "humanity"/sympathy?

What would happen to you if such racially motivated killings happen in your country? I bet you would be mad like hell, and more so if other self-righteous jerks blame you people for the tragedy!

The conclusion can be only that to you people, Chinese lives are not as precious as your own people's; what's important is your ideology or your desire to put China down, or to prove that you have the high moral ground(how ironic), or you are simply a better people.

Chinese fenqings rose up to fight for justice and fight people exactly like you: "oxford-educated" but with no common sense,
western supremist, hypocrite, brained-washed by ideology, knowing only
parroting what Dalai Lama says, and people who simply hate China.

Froog said...

Ah, well, you're a week late - but better late than never. Welcome, looney abuser.

My regular - more refined and sedate - readership might possibly imagine that I invented that last comment as a humorous exaggeration of the phenonenon we were discussing. But no - sadly, it was completely genuine.

Dear Fenqing (all of you, any who may happen to be reading),

Please note that this post is humorous: it is making fun of fenqing, yes, but only in a fairly light way. And this is in the context of some other recent posts that equally make fun of fenwai (and of myself) and of some of the points that we often unfairly or over-provocatively make in our blog-commenting.

Please also note that the one serious point in this post, the basis of my and most other people's criticism of fenqing (Chinese people's criticism of them as well) is not what their views are but the aggression and self-righteousness with which they express those views.

Finally, please note that this post is not about any individual fenqing, or any individual argument they may have been involved in, or any individual view they hold. It is most certainly not about Tibet. Go check again - any mention of Tibet? NO.

If you want to portray yourself online as the kind of guy who just goes off on a rant about Tibet all the time, even when everybody else is talking about the economy or space travel or golf, well... go ahead. But you just make yourself look ridiculous. People don't pay any attention to your opinions not because of the opinions themselves, but because you don't know how (and when and where) to present them.

Now, go away, and please don't come back.

Froog said...

OK, I had forgotten, there are some tangential references to the Tibet - but not directly on the issue of Tibet itself, but only as an illustration of the way most fenqing approach the issue.... which is in a fog of irrationality, bad history, and swearing.

Gilman Grundy said...

Dude, you just got linked by Andrew Sullivan's blog, ultra-respecto!

Froog said...

Oh my god, really? I'd better go and check those traffic stats again.

Thanks for tipping me off, FOARP.

Perhaps I should do that 'enable pingbacks' thing one day, but I'm such a Luddite.

Anonymous said...

Observation 1. You were using "Tibet" (yes, "T" was mentioned 4 times) to sling mud at "your enemy"; I was using "Tibet" to prove you and your cronies are even worse than your enemy.

Obervation 2. You were not talking about "the economy or space travel or golf"; instead, you were talking about fenqings with all the nasty words you could possibly use(so that you would still be perceived as "refined").

Observation 3. You avoid the true issue (the reason for the rise of fenqings); instead you complain about the "aggression and self-righteousness" of fenqings. Need I remind you, a native speaker of English who majored in Classics at Oxford, that the word "aggression" means "starting a fight"? (Who started the fight?)

Observation 4. And the contemptuous tone, and the I-must-be-right, they-must-be-stupid attitude manifested in your post and reply.

Now draw your own conclusions; let me know if you need help analyzing the data.

Froog said...

Dear Fenqing,

Yes, I did mention the T-word. Sorry. I had forgotten. I already apologised to you for overstating the inappropriateness of your intervention on this point.

However, you are arriving a week-and-a-half late to the party, and you are trying to start a debate that is not happening here.

I did not say anything about my own views on Tibet, or on fenqing views on Tibet. I merely pointed out that the way they present and justify those views - as illustrated by the YouTube slideshow I linked to - are often obnoxious and ludicrous.


1) I was not using "Tibet" to do anything other than to illustrate the fenqing style of 'argument'. No "mud-slinging" from me. I disparage fenqing attitudes, but I don't resort to abuse. I leave that to you guys.

2) Oh no, I wasn't. I know lots of nastier words, really - some of them even in Chinese.

3) Actually, "aggression" - especially as I use it here - means something more like "behaving as if you are in a fight (when perhaps you're not)". Ah, the benefits of that Oxford education...

I don't know enough to comment in detail on the origins of the fenqing phenomenon, other than to observe, as I did in passing, that I think it is probably largely the product of CCP propaganda in the education system. I wasn't "avoiding" anything; but I get to choose the topics of my posts, and for me the "true issue" I wanted to talk about here was HOW fenqing talk, not WHAT they say, or WHY.

4) I thought my reply to you was very mild and courteous. Lightly mocking, yes, but reasoned, restrained, and non-abusive.

If you've visited the debate over on Jeremiah's blog, you'll have seen that whereas he - and many people - seek to define fenqing only as the most extreme trolls, a 'lunatic fringe', I - and many people - see the term as much wider, encompassing any Chinese with strongly nationalist views and a tendency to get very irate and shouty about them. I do in fact have a lot of respect for fenqing, or for some of them, anyway; I'm interested in what you guys have to say; I just wish you were able to say it more clearly and cogently, rather than veering off all over the place in your arguments and then descending into ranting and name-calling.

OK, that's it. We're done. Please take this somewhere else.

Anonymous said...

Huh! Wiggling away by re-defining a word to serve/save yourself, that very technique, I seem to recall, was used by another Oxford graduate, the famous one. (Hint: in that case, the word was not "aggression", it was "sex".)

On the heavy side: you do not seem to read well. The chief point in my first Comment was that the very words "self-righteous","faulty logic" and
"lack of humanity" you used to label fenqings fit nicely to, ironically, "you"(as a group if you prefer); no NEW debate was intended; "T" was used to elucidate my point.

Lastly, I am quite wary of the notion that you were "abused". Read your own post again, and answer the question: who was the one starting the hurling of insults?

Anonymous said...

It's fascinating that in-ur--face fenqing is unable to mount counterarguments on Froog in any way other than by making personal attacks.

Prediction: in-ur--face's response will involve personal
attacks on me, and/or an attempt at redefining "personal attacks" to include statements or individual words from my post but not his own, and/or an attempt to hang the start of the fight on me. You could write a script that did this all on its own.

Gilman Grundy said...

@Mike Caton -

"You could write a script that did this all on its own."

Awesome! Great idea for an IT project! I'm pretty sure we could get funding for it from the Scientologists/FLG/CCP as an instant-rebuttal/astroturfing device. Just a pity you've already published this on the internet - makes getting a patent much harder . . .

Froog said...

I'm not "redefining" a word at all, INURF; just telling you that your conception of the word was wrong. I forgive you. English is a difficult language. Non-native speakers make these mistakes all the time.

I don't see the words "lack of humanity" in my post - maybe you just subconsciously made that accusation against yourself? :) The other things you quote me on are "criticisms" not "abuse". Is this another non-native speaker problem? MLGB is abuse. Do you get the difference? Admittedly, there's a grey area on this: "stupid" might be a legitimate criticism where it's obviously true, but just abuse where it's not. And I admit I might have strayed close to or over that line.

However, I don't think I accused you of "abuse". I just lamented that it was a common fenqing failing.

I did, sort of, get your point about "us" (would be nice if you tried to define it a bit more closely) being no better/different than fenqing. Not a very original or pertinent point, and one that fenqing typically make all the time (usually without doing anything much to back it up); but again I had pre-empted you by writing a post myself the day after this one making fun of fenwai.

You rather discredited yourself with your first post here, INURF (oh, yeah, and with your choice of screen name, of course): you did not use "T" to make any point about what I had said; you just went off on a wild rant for 3 or 4 paragraphs.

Little tip for you here: if you want to be taken seriously, and not appear over-emotional or irritatinly strident, and not come across as unthinking or possibly racist,don't pepper your comments with the phrase "you people". It doesn't go down well. I'm just trying to be helpful.

Anonymous said...

I will use the follwing notation:
you=Froog the person;

(And also at your reqeust:)
"you"= the group of people that are lacking of common sense/logic, self-righteous, condescending, ideological, hypocrite, simplistic(as in claiming "they were brain-washed by communist propaganda"), aggressive (while claiming to be the victims of aggression), as manifested in and illustrated by what they did and did not do after the Tibet riots.

I am aware of the fact that you have already defined "fenwai" in the similar (but not entirely the same) fashion; I don't deny that "us" can be defined sharing some of the characteristics; in "you" I don't include people who "dare to make an observation that appears to be 'critical' of China" (after all, you have made lots of such obervations in your blog that neither me nor any other fenqings had any problem with).

"Disclaimer" that is too long, but is neccesary...

Now let me respond to your last Comment at your original order.

About "aggression": thanks for your tutoring in English. In totality, fenqings acted in self-defense-I see self-defense not aggression from "us", including me.

About "lack of humanity": it was stated by one of "you"; precisely,
Yu'er on March 14. (I assume that she is an ethnic Chinese, fighting the party from US, which I have no real problem with.)

About "abuse": in your first Comment of March 21, in the first paragraph, you wrote "Welcome, looney abuser". Now you are saying you don't think I abused you! The "greeting" was very efficient:
name-calling(which you accused "us" doing it) and "victim-claiming". I could make the same claim, but I don't want to act like a crying baby; I prefer fighting right back.

About "fenwai" : I read that post after you added your
"Update 3". Update 3 occured after my initial Comment of March 21. I then realized that you did partially see the other side of the "coin". (A smart move of yours.) Consequently, I have toned down my subsequent Comments, even after the name-calling and the languages such as "now-go-away" from you, and despite the obvious softer tone in "fenwai".

About "T": I am not going to attack you with something you already appologized (about the "T's" being there 4 times then stating "NO" emphatically, etc). However,
I am forced by your repeated accussasion to run down the following list: in my first Comment of March 21 I stated, in the first paragraph, my main point(which is of course pertinent here), then starting my second paragraph with "This is proved by what you people and your media did(and are still doing) after the riots in Tibet last year"; third and fourth about "common sense/logic"; fifth on "humanity"; sixth on "what-you-do-if-in-my-shoe" and this paragraph together with the 8th on
"hypocrisy", the 9th being the strong-perhaps too strong, even insulting to you-version of the first paragraph. On the other hand, your original Post contains some rather deriding words, too. Let me mention in passing that I also disagree to your calculus about Tibet history and that your 2nd and 3rd paragraphs seemed to be "veering off " from the "How", one of the typical fenqing syndromes as you would say.

About "you people": Oh no, no racist meaning whatsoever! That's my confrontational(aggressive if you prefer) way of saying "you". In fact, as I mentioned before, Yu'er(ethnic Chinese) is one of "you" and hence "you people".
Emotional at the time of writing? Yes.

About my screen name: I fight back hard, in-ur-face style, hence the name. I don't initiate it, though.

In closing: I see some subtance in
your "fenqing" "fenwai" posts;
I reject your tone and your attitudes completely.

I will give you the bat to hit it for the last time, and, as you were wishing for, LEAVE for my real work and for "the economy, space walk and golf"!

Froog said...

OK, lovely post, INURF - but you know what? You're rambling again. If you're going to try to say that many things at once, say them simply, and use bullet-points.

And you lost me at "Tibet riots". Nowhere has anybody - in my original post, in the comments, in the other webpages I linked to - said anything about the events in Tibet last year. That is not a topic here. I made fun of your fenqing comrade who posted a stupid, foul-mouthed, and laughably illogical video on YouTube "supporting" China's claim to sovereignty over Tibet. I didn't say anything about what I think about the status of Tibet, or about what happened there last year, or about what I think the Chinese government should be doing now. I have talked about these things occasionally on other threads on other blogs. I deliberately avoided talking about any of that here. If you are interested, you should go and find those other blogs.

You don't pay enough attention. If you did, you wouldn't complain about me blaming you or fenqing in general for "lack of humanity" when it was actually something one of my commenters had said.

I don't think you do disagree with "my tone or my attitudes" so much as not understand them. To a large extent it is, I think, a language and culture deficit. There's a lot of humour going on here, which seems to completely pass you by. There's also a lot of close argumentation going on, which completely seems to pass you by.

I would, for example, say that most people I know would read "Welcome, looney abuser" as ridicule rather than "abuse". And you did entirely invite it and deserve it by the ranting, off-topic nature of your first comment.

What do you have to be "self-defensive" about? When you try to fight back against people who are not attacking you, or when you complain about insults which are very mild or not present at all, you do just sound like "a crying baby".

People aren't taking you seriously? Oh dear. You need to study more carefully how to read, write, and argue in English.

Anonymous said...

Hmm......90% match

The word "fenqing" used to be a "positive" one--a young guy who is angry because of the lackness of freedom/corruption/social unfairness etc.In those days,young thinker were proud to be called as a "fenqing愤青".

Nowadays,"fenqing" call their "opposite" side(who cares more about domestic problems like human rights/political freedom/democracy) "jingying精英" or "hanjian汉奸".The second one is probobly the worst one--it means "the traitor of our nation".

Generally,most of "fenqing" in China are college students,and still,most of them WILL CHANGE when they meet the real life.

Froog said...

Well, I hope that's true - that they can and will change. So many of the ones we encounter on foreigner blogs here appear to be grad students (or working) overseas, and have been spouting the same sort of stuff for years without showing any sign of changing at all. That gets rather depressing.

Thanks for that, Real Fenqing. I wonder when the shift in use occurred. I had read in the Wikipedia article on the term that it arose a long time ago (70s or 80s) in Hong Kong.

I try not to use it in a purely derogatory sense. It's a convenient - perhaps too convenient - tag for a certain kind of commenter, but some of them, I acknowledge (even INURF here, who was a bit extreme) have some worthwhile points to make. I'm interested in the viewpoint; I just wish the ANGER didn't constantly get in the way of what they're trying to say.

Anonymous said...

It's true that most of the English-speaking fenqing are grad/college students overseas,but they are the minority in the whole "fenqing" society.I said yesterday that only MOST of the "fenqing" will change in the real world according to my observation IN CHINA,and obviously,you can make a reasonable prediction that "fenqing" overseas will not change so easily:),especially to the younger ones.

To avoid misleading,"Change" above means that changed "fenqing" become more interested in daily life(individual/family rights) instead of political/historical things like 3Ts(or 4Ts?),and may start to question their original belief.

You're right that the CCP propoganda helped a lot to "manufacture" SO MANY fenqing.Nowadays,Propoganda is a BIG system which did/do/will EVOLVE to be adaptive! Before 90s,the core of CCP propoganda was "political education"(Communism is GOOD,Capitalism is BAD,and Communism will WIN:)),and it was obviously useless(Ti...Square in 89).After that,CCP propoganda ingeniously changed its way of brain-wash which is proved to be VERY effective.HISTORICAL education(some historian called it "wolf-milk education") with partial truth,carefully fabricated "truth",unbalanced comments,and "first impressions rocks!" became the new key point.The main philosophy of this "historical education" is simple but can be accepted quickly and deeply rooted in students'value system--"If there is a conflict(Chinese VS Laowai),Chinese was/is/will be the RIGHT one:)".

Luckily there are some of the historians trying to re-write Chinese history,especially the history in 20th century.Better late than never,and I believe it is the ONLY way to be good.

Unknown said...

Something I find extremely amusing, given how the internet has become such a huge part of everyday life in China, is that nobody seems to realize how pointless and futile it is to argue with people over the internet.

Posting long diatribes with bits like "on such and such day i said this in paragraph three" accusing people of misunderstanding your posts in extremely long and boring responses which nobody wants to read is just such a colossal waste of time.

But this is common in China. It's common in America, sure, but this sort of behavior gets you banned from most forums. I've sort of developed a filter (a 'sperg-detector) where I can just ignore this stuff. In China some people just seem to run with it.

Eventually they'll realize no one cares about the size of their e-penis, that there's nothing to e-fame, that in general people find them annoying.

until then..

Anonymous said...


Anonymous said...

To Anonymous:

The only thing that makes me and most of your "arrogant","selfish","cold-blood" foreign enemies(as you said) critize you is not your VIEWS but your WAY to express them.

Take a look at your comment.It is definentely NOT a reasonable argument.Take it easy,my friend! Abusing anonymously only reflected your WEAKNESS.Try to ARGUE next time,and what's more,remember to leave your NAME.

Froog said...

Well, thank you, Real Fenqing, for speaking for me there. I guess it's not worth my trying to translate 'Anonymous's comment.

Unknown said...

Truth made you a traitor as it often does in a time of scoundrels. See the link below for more info.


Unknown said...

I read your blog.I thought it was great.. Hope you have a great day. God bless.